Social protection is a subset of public actions that help address risk, vulnerability and chronic poverty. Social transfers and social services are a long-term investment. They carry lifetime benefits and high individual and social returns. Social protection aims at ensuring groups and individuals to live a fulfilling life, taking into consideration the role of the state in facilitating this, and the vulnerabilities of particular groups or individuals. As a set of policies, social protection consists of interventions which address vulnerabilities and factors which hinder a group or individual's capacity to enjoy a fulfilling life.
Cities and urban areas in developing countries are growing very fast largely contributed by urbanization and allure of jobs by the youthful populations. Majority of the urban dwellers are poor and are vulnerable to climate-induced disruptions. Cities have a responsibility to tackle risks and build resilience through sustainable and inclusive development to spur commerce, culture, science, and production.
After independence, the first president was interested in achieving three things for the country; ie the eradication of extreme poverty, illiteracy, and extreme hunger. This was necessitated by the fact that then and through the colonial system, Kenyans had been treated as second-class citizens which increased their vulnerability and exposure to the three issues. However, this was not achieved then and subsequent governments have been trying to address these issues by encompassing them in development plans and policies. The promulgation of the new Kenyan constitution in 2010, brought forth government’s commitment to providing for vulnerable populations that are unable to meet their basic needs, including women, children, older persons and the youth. Kenya’s economic blueprint (Vision 2030) contends that “no society can gain social cohesion if significant sections of the population live in abject poverty.” Reducing vulnerability and poverty is a key element of many social policies across government ministries in Kenya.
Developing countries are struggling to adapt to Climate Change (CC) while the international community committed to stemming the gas emissions is wavering due to various self-interests. As lack of strong commitment to arresting this phenomenal problem persists, climate change impacts including drought, floods continue to ravage developing countries unabated resulting in food shortages, increases in vector-borne diseases, infrastructure damage and the degradation of natural resources. This situation is affecting mostly the rural folks who are defenseless with their only hope being governments and organizations that carry out development projects in rural and informal settlements in urban areas.
All countries in the world face risks emanating from natural or anthropogenic sources. Some countries have improved their response rates and thereby survival by being more organized, investing and developing sound response systems and human resources, investing in research and investing in technological innovations as a way of adapting to their environment. Despite these gains, hazards are increasingly becoming common that they threated development investments.
Children, unlike adults, are affected uniquely by conflicts and emergencies, however; they could facilitate quick and lasting recovery of the community. Children find themselves in vulnerable situations during emergencies and bear the greatest brunt of disasters because of their vulnerability. As such, these children are exposed to displacement, separation, discrimination, forced labor, sexual and economic exploitation, trafficking and conflicts. Child protection measures have to be undertaken from the onset of an emergency to ensure their wellbeing is guarded. To achieve this, professionals working with children have a duty to prevent violence and abuse and to enable children to access protection services through government and community systems.
Monitoring and evaluation is a concept and practice through which organizations evaluate where they are, where they are going, how they will get there and basically what needs to be done to achieve preset objectives. The practice enables organizations to understand what they need to do, ultimately understand if they achieved the same and if they didn’t, evaluate what could have been done to improve results of rolled out projects. This five day’s training serves as a guide and introduction to development practitioners primarily those involved continuously in project implementation on how to monitor and evaluate projects and programmes in an effort to achieve objectives and also help beneficiary communities in improving their livelihoods.
Climate change (CC) threatens progress on development particularly in developing countries because they have the least capacity to cope. Adaptation to climate change in these countries is therefore critical. These adjustments in response to the negative impacts of climate change are necessary as they are locally focused and inexpensive. Adaptation efforts based at the local level address exposure of vulnerable recipients to the adverse impacts of climate change. Community-based climate change adaptation identifies and facilitates local development activities that strengthen the capacity of local people to adapt to the capricious climate. This approach employs participatory processes and disaster risk reduction.
World Health Organization data shows that 1.7 million deaths a year are attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. 54.2 million disability adjusted life years (DALY) are caused by unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene – each DALY represents the loss of one year of equivalent full health. Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene practices have been shown to reduce sickness from diarrhoea by between one-quarter and one-third. Communities can examine existing hygiene behaviors, practices, traditions and understand how transmission of disease takes place and how it can be prevented at a household level. Girls who are unable to access clean safe water, separate toilets and handwashing facilities at school are much more likely to drop out.
Why do governments, NGOs, Foundations, CBOS and other organizations roll out projects and programmes in different sectors? It is because they want to make an impact in the lives of the target audiences/ beneficiaries through thoroughly thought out series of actions whose end result is improved livelihoods and quality of life. How do they ensure they meet this objective? This is done through effective monitoring of these programmes so as to ensure that they are still on course and if they aren’t, take actions that take the projects back on track. This training aims to enlighten the participant on the entire process of monitoring of projects and evaluating them to ensure that the intended development related results are continuously achieved.